How To Answer The Questionnaires

General Guidelines


As to each subtopic as a whole, the most essential literature (whether foreign or domestic) should be indicated.
(b) References to sources (legislation, case law, scholarly writings, etc.) should remain in proportion to the importance of that source within the legal system.
(c) Although the main task is to provide answers about the legal system(s) one represents in the working group, remarks and information involving other systems in a comparison are welcome.


Not every question, or subquestion, is to be answered as thoroughly as indicated below. Also, it will often be possible to group together answers on level II or III for different questions (or subquestions).

Level I. Operative Rules

  • (a) indicate:

  1. how the case would be solved by case law in the given legal system;

  2. whether this is or not the solution given by the other legal formants, i.e., (according to a prima facie interpretation of) legislation, primary and/or delegated; legal doctrine; custom and usage;

  3. whether all these formants are concordant, both from an internal point of view (indicate minority doctrines, including dissenting opinions in leading cases, opposite opinions in scholarly writings, etc.), and from a diachronic point of view (whether the various solutions are recent achievements or they are identical in the past);

  4. if appropriate in the legal system, also the level of facticity or juridicity of the solution, i.e, whether the solution is considered to be a question of fact or a question of law (see Schlesinger, Formation of Contracts, supra note ___; Introduction, II (5) (c) (bb), p. 56) -- this is in order not only to determine the degree to which the solution can be enforced by supreme courts against lower courts, but also the impact of judicial precedent on the matters implied by the solution.

Level II. Descriptive Formants.

Indicate the reasons for which lawyers feel obliged to give the solution(s) mentioned in Level I, and where appropriate, the different reasons for the different approaches and formants -- including, for example: 

  1. consistency/inconsistency of the solution with specific and general legislative provisions, with general principles (traditional as well as emerging ones), and with constitutional provisions directly affecting the subject; is the solution considered a historical accident? are there any reform proposals? 
  2. whether the solution is dependent on legal rules and/or institutions outside the private law, such as procedural institutions (including rules of evidence), administrative and constitutional (different than those at Point 1, supra) provisions; 
  3. how the solution is dogmatically explained; how do/must the lawyers reason in order to come to that solution; how do they use legal reasoning to eliminate contraindications which could lead to a different solution.

Level III. Metalegal Formants.

Indicate the other elements affecting the solution(s) mentioned at Level I, such as policy considerations, economic and/or social factors, social context and values, and the structure of legal process (organization of courts, administrative structure, etc.).